Unuiĝo Franca por Esperanto
Biblioteko  Hippolyte  Sebert

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Method of using

Coding Telegrams

Decoding Telegrams

Important Notice

Nine examples of Telegrams

Forms of Verbs

3 Tables of Forms of Verbs


Table of Check-Letter

Correction of Errors


An important staff, specially selected for the purpose, has been engaged for a period of some years in the compilation of this work, involving an amount of labour of which it is difficult to give an adequate idea.

It is therefore satisfying to believe that everything materially possible has been done to render this Code worthy of the services which we trust it will be called upon to perform in the cable correspondence of the world.

With the LUGAGNE INTERNATIONAL CODE, we can telegraph, as one would speak, through the medium of seven languages : ENGLISH, FRENCH, GERMAN, ITALIAN, SPANISH, PORTUGUESE & ESPERANTO, whilst, the sender of the message need have no knowledge of any language but his own, as the Code words translate themselves automatically into the language of the receiver, or of any other at his option.

This work therefore, enables any one to make himself understood throughout the world.

The LUGAGNE INTERNATIONAL CODE liberates the sender of cable messages from the serious restriction of being obliged to express himself in ready-made phrases upon which works of this character have hitherto been based. It permits the compilation simply, directly & without research, in his own words, of the exact message the sender desires to transmit. Hence the saving of time and the gain in precision obtained, is one of its greatest advantages.

The LUGAGNE INTERNATIONAL CODE is the exact interpretation in Code language of the verbal enunciation :

A SUBJECT : 3 letters
A VERB (in all its tenses) : 3 letters
AN OBJECT : 3 letters

The artificial word of nine letters thus formed is completed by the addition of a tenth letter which enables the receiver of a message to verify its correctness and to rectify mechanically any error in transmission.

All the indications (words, verbs, locutions, dates, quantities, products, proper names, etc.) can be assembled at the will of the sender, so that in many cases, two entire phrases can be conveyed by a single code word.

This combination has already been fully tried in the CODE ENCYCLOPÉDIQUE G. L. compiled in French only, and it was the success obtained by that work that led to the compilation of the LUGAGNE INTERNATIONAL CODE.

The improvements therefore suggested by preceeding works of this character and also the compilers’ own experience have enabled a degree of perfection, not otherwise attainable, to be reached.

Each group of three letters constituting an expression, and each expression being translated in the same line into English, French, German, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese and Esperanto, the artificial words of this Code may be said to form a veritable international language.

The alphabetical arrangement of the words constitutes the LUGAGNE INTERNATIONAL CODE a complete and reliable commercial dictionary.

The composition and translation of the technical words and commercial locutions have been undertaken in collaboration with commercial men, ship-brokers, manufacturers, financiers, engineers ; of distinguished professors of languages and specialists in code science.

The General Codes hitherto used give a maximum of 100.000 phrases. The number of phrases obtainable by the grouping of the words in the LUGAGNE INTERNATIONAL CODE is, however, practically innumerable.

In addition to the essential advantages of the LUGAGNE INTERNATIONAL CODE, the volume contains :

1°  A Code in blank, permitting users to telegraph their current wants with the maximum of economy ;

2°  Informations concerning telegraphic correspondence ;

3°  An equivalent table of the principal monetary systems ;

4°  Tables unifying the weights and measures most in use.

These latter advantages have been added to the LUGAGNE INTERNATIONAL CODE in the hope that it may become a veritable international link in the commercial correspondence of the world, as well as being a commercial encyclopædic dictionary, and such as it is here described, it is offered to the public interested, with confidence that it will realise the hopes formed of it and satisfy the needs which rendered its compilation necessary.


Every possible care has been taken in the editing and printing of this work. But we hope that should anybody notice an error, they will be kind enough to point it out to us at once.



With 32caw 
our +32ovy 
code +25eor 
 =89= f} cawovyeorf
economy 38ikt 
forty +40sul 
per cent +23dyc 
 =101= s} iktsuldycs
minimum 29ofl 
obtained +35ozy 
on +43wep 
 =107= y} oflozywepy
all 28xai 
former +27awi 
codes. +25eor 
 =80= w} xaiawieorw
You may 32ryb 
also +15bye 
correspond +35gaw 
 =82= y} rybbyegawy
with 32caw 
all +28xai 
countries. +48pzu 
 =108= z} cawxaipzuz

cawovyeorf iktsuldycs oflozywepy xaiawieorw rybbyegawy cawxaipzuz




1° Coding Telegrams

Write out the text to be telegraphed in the most concise manner, as if it were to be transmitted without the aid of a Code (1).

(1) Senders need have no anxiety as to whether their correspondents know the language used in the making up the telegram when sent. The Codes gives automatically the translation in the language of the receiver.

Thus the phrase :

« In case you cannot come to terms, ask for the sale by auction of the damaged maize. »

can be condensed as follows, without altering the sense :

« In case of disagreement, ask sale by auction, damaged maize. »

PART D (pages 8 to 94) will give each of the words or terms constituting the sentence to be transmitted, in their alphabetical order :

Opposite each word or term write the groups and the numerals (two figures) representing them :

In case of dui        17 
disagreement    hme   30 
ask         hfa23 
 duihmehfa70= l
sale by auction yam        23 
damaged    cav   31 
maize.         nob28 
 yamcavnob82= y

Arrange these groups, so as to constitute code words of nine letters and total up their values.

A tenth letter (the check) which will be found in PART D (Page 7), must be added after each of these words.


2° Decoding Telegrams

Split each of the code words received into groups of three letters beginning at the left :

duihmehfal   {   dui / hme / hfa / l

yamcavnoby   {   yam / cav / nob / y

See PART A (pages 8 to 213) where these groups are classed in alphabetical order.

Take their signification from the column of the language required.

17duiIn case of
70= l 
23yamsale by auction
82= y 

Arrange groups as above with their respective translations and values, and total up these values.

Then refer to PART D (Page 7), of the Check Table to verify the telegram transmitted.

3° Important Notice

Blanks. — Our Code is intended to serve an infinite number of differents branches in the commercial world, therefore it has been impossible to include all the articles employed in every business.

For this reason a margin of five groups has been reserved in blank at the end of each initial letter to enable additions to be made.

Words in parentheses. — The parentheses which will be found in the Code indicate that the use of the words which are enclosed is optional, and depends upon the sense of the sentence or its grammatical construction.

Examples :  (in) balast ;  (they) are buying

Verbs. — We have fully conjugated the Auxiliary Verbs and others in most general use, in their principal tenses only.

The remaining verbs are only given in the Infinitive and Past Participle, placed opposite the same group of three letters.

In the majority of cases these two parts of the verb are sufficient, and the sense of the phrase indicates whether the Infinitive or the Past Participle is to be used.

Examples :  business (to settle, settled)
can you (to settle, settled) business ?

Above all, the Table Conjugation of verbs, PART D (Pages 95 to 98), enables users of the Code to indicate, by the addition of a goup of three letters, whatever form, mood, tense and person is to be employed with any non-conjugated or partly conjugated verb in the Code.

Composition of Code Words. — When a code word, constructed as explained above, seems to present some difficulty of pronunciation, it can be rendered easily pronounceable by :

1° Changing if possible the order of the groups which constitute the word ;

2° Replacing one of these groups by another having a similar signification, or by,

3° Inserting the group oue 11 which has been reserved for this purpose.

This group is always to be used when, for any reason, no other method is employed.

Attention is called to the fact that in cases where the number of groups to be transmitted, is not dividable by three and the last word is consequently composed of only one or two groups of three letters, the insertion of the group oue (even if twice repeated) does not increase the cost of transmission of the message.

Words having a different signification placed opposite the same group. — This arises from the fact that a word which corresponds to the same group has two or more meanings in another language.

No uneasiness need be felt on this account, for the sens of the sentence will indicate to the correspondent which of the two words is intended.

On the other hand where the meaning of a word is open to misinterpretation, when translated into another language, an explanation has been printed in small type in parentheses to show unmistakably the precise meaning.


1st Example

Will you forwardjot38  
including all charges kov40  
excepting jio20  
  98= o} jotkovjioo
cartage dny32  
to our debiteci13  
subject to reply within 24 hours ufa16  
  61= c} dnyeciufac

2n Example

In the event of dui17  
Court xir46  
Hambourg let38  
  101= s} duixirlets
competent eyp26  
obtain ozy35  
nomination oty31  
  92= i} eypozyotyi
Expert jro36  
adjournment arn37  
absolutely necessary maj30  
  103= u} jroarnmaju
in order to aog16  
prepare sej35  
file ien22  
  73= o} aogsejieno

3rd Example

Large laj29  
cinematograph eky22  
Brindisi dga21  
  72= n} lajekydgan
fire lwy44  
  105= w} iruhrilwyw
imputable luy26  
electricity imi22  
great kob25  
  73= o} luyimikobo
panic pou27  
numerous oto29  
victims ydo19  
  75= r} pouotoydor

4th Example

Nine hundredori26  
eleven thousand five hundred pfo32  
ninety three sze47  
  105= w} oripfoszew

5th Example

Offer us firm subject to
reply within 48 hours
(without signification) oue11  
cod-liver oil lku34  
  81= x} pemouelkux
we should have cij24  
buyer aja15  
on the spot rji35  
  74= p} cijajarjip

6th Example

We havecej23  
intention min36  
to attempt wum44  
  103= u} cejminwumu
to morrow hev36  
aeroplane anl33  
voyage yox34  
  103= u} hevanlyoxu
Nice osi27  
Algiers ary26  
wire wry48  
  101= s} osiarywrys
noon odi16  
if vcu35  
fine weatherwua29  
  80= w} odivcuwuaw

7th Example

Adjudication amb24  
sailing-ship yja20  
  86= c} ambyjamsyc
wire wry48  
instructions mhy34  
Dakar gru35  
  117= i} wrymhygrui

8th Example

We are jak28  
obliged oze31  
to suspend wio30  
  89= f} jakozewiof
shipments isu28  
owing to duy20  
strike lax40  
  88= e} isuduylaxe
inform ced19  
agents aom21  
  57= y} cedaomjaiy

9th Example

Opponents ank32  
(they accept) aeh15  
amicable arrangement bhe21  
  68= j} ankaehbhej
on condition that fes32  
matter anr37  
(without signification) oue11  
  80= w} fesanrouew
Monday nit41  
wire wry48  
  125= r} xefnitwryr
your ylz46  
proposals sod33  
transaction xax49  
  128= u} ylzsodxaxu



By means of this table those verbs of which all the forms are not given in the Code may be completed.

It will be seen that any statement may be expressed so as to give the exact shade of meaning desired, in a clear and definite manner.

The tabulated examples enable the users :

1° To give precise orders ;

2° To make all statements relating to the past, the present and the future ;

3° To transform these statements to the negative or the interrogative.




Take from the following table the Code group corresponding to the form wanted and join it to the group representing the verb selected, as shown in the following table.

Very important Notice.

1° The verbs placed opposite the indications of the Table must never be used with the preposition " To " indicated with them in the Vocabulary.

For instance :  yufaod  = You will charter, and not you will to charter.

2° Opposite certain forms in this table we have placed the following indication (....ed) as being the regular ending ; in the case of irregular verbs the ending must be read in accordance to the particular verb.

For instance : We have bought, etc.


Forms Examples
Present 30   yti = We : I 30+14=44   ytiaod We : I charter
  31   yto = You 31+14=45   ytoaod You charter
  32   ytu = He : they 32+14=46   ytuaod He : they charter
Past 33   yty = We : I have ....ed 33+14=47   ytyaod We : I have chartered
  18   yub = You have ....ed 18+14=32   yubaod You have chartered
  19   yuc = He has : they have ....ed 19+14=33   yucaod He has : they have chartered
Future 20   yud = We : I shall or will 20+14=34   yudaod We : I shall or will charter
  21   yuf = You shall or will 21+14=35   yufaod You shall or will charter
  22   yug = He : they shall or will 22+14=36   yugaod He : they shall or will charter
Conditional 23   yuh = We : I should or would 23+14=37   yuhaod We : I should or would charter
  24   yuj = You should or would 24+14=38   yujaod You should or would charter
  25   yuk = He : they should or would 25+14=39   yukaod He : they should or would charter
Imperative 26   yul = You must 26+14=40   yulaod You must charter
  27   yum = He : they must 27+14=41   yumaod He : they must charter
Present Participle 28   yun = ....ing 28+14=42   yunaod Chartering
Past Participle 29   yup = ....ed (1)
(or irregular form)
29+14=43   yupaod Chartered
Infinitive 30   yur = To (1) 30+14=44   yuraod To charter
(1) The infinitive and Past Participle being indicated in the Code in front of a same group,
we have taken care that those using the Code are enabled—however rare the case may be—to precise,
when needful, which of the two is meant, by using what precedes.


Forms Examples
Present 31   yus = We : I do not 31+14=45   yusaod We : I do not charter
  32   yut = You do not 32+14=46   yutaod You do not charter
  33   yuv = He does not : they do not 33+14=47   yuvaod He does not charter,
they do not charter
Past 35   yux = We : I have not ....ed 35+14=49   yuxaod We : I have not chartered
  36   yuz = You have not ....ed 36+14=50   yuzaod You have not chartered
  29   yva = He has not : they have not ....ed 29+14=43   yvaaod He has not chartered,
they have not chartered
Future 30   yve = We : I shall or will not 30+14=44   yveaod We : I shall or will not charter
  31   yvi = You shall or will not 31+14=45   yviaod You shall or will not charter
  32   yvo = He : they shall or will not 32+14=46   yvoaod He : they shall or will not charter
Conditional 33   yvu = We : I should or would not 33+14=47   yvuaod We : I should or would not charter
  34   yvy = You should or would not 34+14=48   yvyaod You should or would not charter
  30   ywa = He : they should or would not 30+14=44   ywaaod He : they should or would not charter
Imperative 31   ywe = Do not 31+14=45   yweaod Do not charter
  32   ywi = He : they must not 32+14=46   ywiaod He : they must not charter
Present Participle 33   ywo = Not ....ing 33+14=47   ywoaod Not chartering
Past Participle 34   ywu = Not ....ed
(or irregular form)
34+14=48   ywuaod Not chartered
(or irregular form)
Infinitive 35   ywy = Not to 35+14=49   ywyaod Not to charter


Forms Examples
Present 31   yxa = Do we : I ? 31+14=45   yxaaod Do we : I charter ?
  32   yxe = Do you ? 32+14=46   yxeaod Do you charter ?
  33   yxi = Does he : do they ? 33+14=47   yxiaod Does he : do they charter ?
Past 34   yxo = Have we : I ....ed ? 34+14=48   yxoaod Have we : I chartered ?
  35   yxu = Have you ....ed ? 35+14=49   yxuaod Have you chartered ?
  36   yxy = Has he : have they ....ed ? 36+14=50   yxyaod Has he chartered,
have they chartered ?
Future 32   yza = Shall or will we : I ? 32+14=46   yzaaod Shall or will we : I charter ?
  33   yze = Shall or will you ? 33+14=47   yzeaod Shall or will you charter ?
  34   yzi = Shall or will he : they ? 34+14=48   yziaod Shall or will he : they charter ?
Conditional 35   yzo = Should or would we : I ? 35+14=49   yzoaod Should or would we : I charter ?
  36   yzu = Should or would you ? 36+14=50   yzuaod Should or would you charter ?
  37   yzy = Should or would he : they ? 37+14=51   yzyaod Should or would he : they charter ?




By this check-letter, a telegram may be sent with the absolute certitude that the code words employed cannot be mutilated in the course of transmission, without being detected by the receiver. In addition to this advantage, the receiver is enabled to rectify automatically errors of transmission, without awaiting repetitions which cause a loss of time, often prejudicial to the business in hand and encumbering the telegraphic fines and cables to the detriment of the whole service.




1° For Coding

The totals of the 3 groups which constitute each of the code words having been added up from the following table, the letter corresponding to the total is joined to the Code word ; thus :

Total =70

70 corresponds in the Table to the Letter l.

The word to be transmitted will be : duihmehfal


2° For Decoding

The totals of the 3 numbers corresponding to the 3 groups of each word having been added up, examine the following table to see if the tenth letter of each of these words corresponds exactly to the total addition, thus :

dui / hme / hfa / l

70 being one of the values of l

The word has been properly transmitted.

If on the contrary the check-letter received does not correspond with the total obtained, refer to PART C (Correction of Errors), pages 3-4.

Table of Check-Letter





If the check letter does not correspond to the total value of the groups of the word it terminates, this word has been wrongly transmitted.

The most frequent error consists in the changing of one letter for another. This error is always easily and quickly adjusted.

Thus :  slasgexhyc kozthoylef  the telegram received (1).

Its translation is :

36 sla   We promise
33 sge   premium
42 xhy   thirty thousand
111 equals c (word properly transmitted.)
43 koz   francs
37 tho   currants
23 yle   thief
103 does not
f (word mutilated.)

It is evident :

1° That in the 2nd word, the translation of the group  tho  has no signification whatever in the phrase ; tho  is therefore the erroneous group.

2° That in the "Check-Letter" Table the nearest values of   f  above or below the total received 103 are 89 and 114.

(1) The special advantage resulting from the new principle of this Code will be readily noticed. Each code-word represents three distinct ideas. Thus when a word is altered in transmission, it is only one of the three ideas which is involved. The others maintain their proper signification and reveal the sense of the mutilated group.

Thus, in the example given, the receiver, who is aware of a theft committed to the detriment of his correspondent, is in no doubt on the receipt of the telegram ; he is assured that the only word which has no signification in the text is "currants".

In codes based on the one-word principle, if one word is mutilated, the whole signification of the message may be lost.


Method to follow for correcting the Error

Total up the values of the two groups correctly transmitted.

Thus :

43 koz francs
+ 23 yle thief
= 66    

Substract the total obtained from the two values of  f,  89 and 114 (those nearest to 103).

89      114
- 66     -  66
= 23      = 48

Refer to PART C (pages 15 to 42) in the "Tableaux" 23 and 48 indicated by the above results and look for the groups having only one letter different to the group tho.

Thus :  th-,  t-o,  -ho

The "Tableau" 23 gives one solution :
bho  signifies "arrest"

The "Tableau" 48 gives another solution :
two  signifies "to reform - reformed"

The sense of the phrase indicates clearly that it is  bho,  signifying arrest which has been sent (1).

(1) We have intentionally chosen a case giving solutions in two different Tables, but more frequently researches will be localised in the same Table.

The maximum number of solutions possibles is 3 ; but it frequently occurs that these solutions are reduced to 2 (as in the example given above) or even to one only, which cannot fail to be the right one.

Of course if the mutilated code word received is composed of only 4 or 7 letters, the method to follow for correcting the error is the same as explained above.


Other possible errors

The following cases very rarely arise ; we examine them, nevertheless, and give the manner of correction :

1° Check letter mutilated — It is possible for the Check Letter itself to be mutilated.

In such cases the code word gives an exact and comprehensible translation.

2° Two letters mutilated in the same group. — Proceed in the same manner as indicated for an error of only one letter, but look in the Tables for the groups having two letters different to the mutilated group received.

3° Two letters mutilated in two different groups. — When the sense of the phrase indicates that two groups have no signification in the mutilated word, subtract the value of the only group having a signification from the two totals nearest to the Check Letter.

Proceed afterwards by trials, in dividing over the two other groups the result of the substractions thus effected.

4° Two letters altered in the same group. — It may be happen, but very rarely, that two letters have been transposed in the same group.

In this case the Check Letter does not indicate the error, but the telegram is not comprehensible.

The correction is very simple ; it is only necessary to invert again the letters of the group having no signification, and two solutions are obtained, of which one is bound to be right.

5° Two letters altered, one at the end and the other at the beginning of two consecutive groups. — The Check Letter does not indicate the error. Two groups have no signification. The correction is excessively simple.

Replace the letter terminating the first group by that commencing the second, and vice-versa. Then take the signification of the two newly constructed groups and the result must be correct.

6° Words received composed of 3, 6 or 9 letters.

7° Words received composed of 5, 8 or 11 letters.

In these two cases, the error has arisen during transmission.

After having localised the error in the group composed of 2 or 4 letters, refer to the special Tables, PART C (page 43) showing all the errors that can occur by the false interpretation of the MORSE signals.

kodo Morse



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